Welcome to the world-leading association of numismatic firms, the
CODE OF ETHICS:
The interchange of cultural materials, among individuals and among nations, has contributed throughout history to the knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of human civilisation. Members of the trade in cultural materials – numismatic and otherwise – play a key role in the dissemination of culture and the distribution of cultural objects to public and private collectors. While engaging in this trade, numismatists who join the I.A.P.N. also undertake corresponding responsibilities. They dedicate themselves to protect and preserve our numismatic heritage, to foster a healthy numismatic marketplace governed by strict ethical standards, to promote scientific research and greater public knowledge of numismatics, and to encourage fellowship among numismatists of all nations. In support of these goals, members pledge to conduct themselves as follows:
- To guarantee the authenticity of all items offered for sale, and never knowingly to sell a copy, forgery, imitation, restruck or altered item, unless it is clearly identified as such. Should a dispute in authenticity arise, items should be returned to the firm from which they were originally purchased for re-examination of authenticity pursuant to the terms of purchase. Any item later found to be a counterfeit will be refunded to the original buyer for the amount of the original purchase price. A claim may be excluded from consideration if alterations to the original condition or packaging of the item(s) sold have been made without prior agreement of the seller, since this could result in a lowering of the value of those item(s), and/or in damaging of the rights of the seller towards either the consignor or the previous seller of the item(s), or any third party.
- To guarantee that good title accompanies all items sold, and never knowingly to deal in any item stolen from a public or private collection or reasonably suspected to be the direct product of an illicit excavation, and to conduct business in accordance with the laws of the countries in which they do business. Members should be willing to assist governmental authorities.
- To describe numismatic items accurately, and to refrain from any misrepresentation of origin, date, condition, provenance, pedigree, or value. Acceptance by any third party for grading is not guaranteed, and the result of such grading may differ from the member’s own assessment without this granting right to claim by the buyer.
- To fulfil all contractual obligations, including the timely delivery of items sold and the timely payment of debts.
- To support and facilitate the interchange of numismatic information and ideas, in furtherance of numismatic research and the dissemination of numismatic knowledge; and to permit free use (open access), for scientific and educational (non-commercial) purposes, to members’ online and printed numismatic descriptions and images, on the conditions that the user inform the member before using the material and that the user give credit to the member as the source of the material.